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Steedman 2000 a donné une traduction formelle de cette architecture dans le cadre de la grammaire catégorielle. Il analyse le thème comme une propriété, de la même manière que Jackendoff analyse la présupposition. Formellement donc, le thème (de Halliday/Steedman), la présupposition (de Jackendoff) et le fond (de Vallduví) s'équivalent. La localisation des accents nucléaires marquent les constituants importants du thème ou du rhème. C'est le sens de Focus chez Steedman (cf. le sens premier du terme BANDOLINO 870707 KYRIE2 Blue 65US QxMUm4
).

[ modifier ]

Vallduví Vilkuna proposent une architecture articulant deux dimensions orthogonales: la bipartition fond-focus (11a) et une dimension de contraste (11c) qu'ils isolent sous le nom de adidas Duramo Slide Sandales à Bouts Ouverts Homme Noir Cblack/Cblack/Cblack S77991 7gitukN
. On notera que le contraste/kontrat n'est pas analysé comme une articulation de l'énoncé, mais comme la propriété d'un constituant dans l'une ou l'autre des deux parties de la SI; il peut y avoir plusieurs constituants contrastifs par énoncé.

L’architecture est seulement esquissée par les auteurs. On peut lui donner davantage de contenu quand on reprend les analyses de la thématisation discursive proposée par Büring 1997 ou Jacobs 1997 (voir MCQ Alexander McQueen Escarpins pour femme IY4Fl
) .

[ modifier ]

La place de la SI dans la grammaire est une question toujours ouverte. La question essentielle est de savoir si elle constitue un niveau d'organisation à part entière dans la grammaire ou bien si ce n'est qu'un système, plus ou moins intuitif, de description des allophrases.

La première thèse est soutenue dans les deux cadres grammaticaux dominants contemporains. Engdahl Vallduví 1994 introduisent un niveau de SI dans une grammaire HPSG (ils reprennent la conception de Vallduví 1992). «The mapping between information packaging and the structural components through which it is realised is effected through a distinct pure level of representation called IS (for information structure). This level [...] consists of an unambiguous syntactic representation of information-packaging instructions» (1994, ibid.: 20). C'est également le cas des modèles grammaticaux qui postulent des projections fonctionnelles dans la périphérie gauche “interprétées dans le discours�? (TopicP, FocusP, etc.) (voir Obenauer 2005 pour un état de l'art récent).

La position adverse est peu représentée dans le champ contemporain. C'est la position de von Heusinger 1999: «Information structure is a cover term for a wide variety of discourse relations corresponding to the complex structure of the discourse representation» (ibid.: 8). On trouvera dans Marandin 2005 les arguments qui amènent à poser que l'articulation fond-focus (qui est au centre de la majorité des architectures de SI proposées) appartient à la dimension illocutoire du contenu des énoncés et, de ce fait, ne constitue pas une dimension autonome.

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Nouriel Roubini

Writing for PS since 2017 1 Commentary

Minouche Shafik, former Deputy Governor for Markets and Banking at the Bank of England, is the incoming Director of the London School of Economics and Political Science.

This reminds me the saying "In the field of human biology, doctors know nearly nothing about nearly everything while researchers know nearly everything about nearly nothing.". True experts reach fantastic depth of knowledge by sacrificing any decent knowledge of the context in which their knowledge takes place. They can respectfully conceptualized as tools or tacticians, while politicians / leaders can be seen as strategists or artisans.

The suspicion is real and this is Mr Trump and Brexit are here. KPMG and the tax evasion all over the news is just one example of abuse of power. NOW, imagine if all these efforts of expertise were channeled to distribute wealth in a more equitable fashion !!! The rich would remain reach and the workers treated more fairly. Thank you

But how do you know that the expertise is genuine, and that it is unbiased, not distorted by the expert's self-interest? Can the clique-infested peer review process really help?

Much of what Ms. Shafik is talking about is forecasting. There are established, scientifically tested principles for forecasting. Unfortunately, they aren't as exciting or difficult as many make out. The Golden Rule is: ""be conservative" when forecasting by relying on cumulative knowledge about the situation and about forecasting." see http://www.forecastingprinciples.com Petey Bee, Walter Gingery, Michael Public, MM, Nigel Sedgewick, and Stephan Edwards(below) all captured the problems in this essay. It is not about actually improving process, but rescuing experts from their pompous and storied continuing mistakes, or in many cases intended outcomes that were not in the best interests of the Whole, but for the best interests of the person, government, political body, paying their salaries. Once someone I was working with asked me how I came to be an expert in a particular process. The answer- I've already made all the major mistakes!

Interesting to observe the ways in which different people are calculating to attack expertise as an input in political processes. Maybe their AI needs a little tweaking to make it less obvious? Or is there a paymaster?

I think transparency about conflicts of interests and financing sources would pretty much sort things out. The rest would follow, if necessary.

Brexit supporters were pilloried for not believing "experts" on mass migration. For myself, having studied demography, I simply looked at the report on immigration sponsored by the UK house of lords, and turned to the housing impact section. It was empty, the conclusions drawn in the executive summaries were based on fallacy. This sort of thing happens time and time again. Reports concerning GDP damage on Brexit, that try to associate living standard with GDP or even (given the step change in social assets required) GDP/head, when the main issue is mass migration, are clearly critically flawed. Again for 2 decades in the UK "migration watch" have got immigration figures right, the government forecasters, LSE etc have always got them completely and utterly wrong. The general theme here is that the experts are not even doing proper peer review, are paid for one side of an argument, but those rejecting them are doing so not out of ignorance but because of education standards and alternative sources of information that have not been bought.

So you're a self-declared expert who disagrees woith unspecific aspects of the analysis and conclusions, and magically your expert opinion matches the perspective you're trying to (fact free) support? The fact of asserting truth and knowledge does not make it so.

If you think nabout ti proghress against disease was hampered by the 'experts' e.g. refusing to wash their hands before attending a birth; as for welfare a long struggle against economic ;'experts' who adhered to Malthusian vbiews that srvation was the best remedy; and as for education, well the 'experts' excluded the poor and the non-religious from Univerisities and schools, and today are still trying their damndest to do so. History is a process of struggle and change - 'expertise' seems a prime candidate for poppycock.

So ... who corrected the experts? Other experts? Or old wives and their adherents?

DEMOCRACY AS IT WAS BORN Restoring Trust in Expertise - points to Transfer Union within EU, but is blocked by European Politics. Restoring Trust in Expertise - points to Fiscal departures within US, to rebalance Inequality, but was blocked by Politics. Restoring Trust in Expertise - points to Investment Equalization to rebalance Economic Geography, but was blocked by India's Politics. Restoring Trust in Expertise - points to Democracy realigning the Economics, if Politics is the roadblock. But then - Brexit and Brexit plus plus become inevitable. Because - Dollarized Democracy is Political Power. Democracy in Athens was without Dollars.

It is wishful thinking

This is waste of time. Élites, economic, political, cultural élites, as well as the media have failed. They have not prevented the catastroph, they have caused it. This is a matter of fact and because of this all your efforts to restore a sort of communication between the failed élites And the people, shall fail. The media also cannot regain public trust because they supported all the wrong globalist anti social multiculturalist evolutions wanted by the establishment, which have ruined people's existences. The remedies you are suggesting are like trying to resurrect a dead body. Forget it, it is impossible.

The less skilled or competent your are, the more confident you are that you're actually very good at what you do. -- The Dunning-Kruger Effect Coupled with the exponentially increasing complexity of everything - for example, I used to be able to repair my car myself; today? hah! - everyone becomes mostly unskilled and incompetent. Also, as the Sturgeon rule declares: "Ninety per cent of everything is crap." This includes the internet. To find anything good, you have to be able to winnow out the bad - good luck with that, if, for example, you seek expert opinion on vaccination!

In today's politics, what we're left with people who insist on expressing their opinions on complicated questions, but have abdicated their responsibility to inform themselves reasonably well. Democracy does not mean that every opinion is as good as any other, regardless of the logic or evidentiary base behind it.

Economists also need to extend their uncertainty to their own school of economic thought i.e neoclassical economics. Good video on this here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7yOM8zmIZ4

Exquisite and or complex predictive abstractions are found in both religions and in hard science-technology. What separates the predictive models in science-technology from the predictive models in religion is that the predictive models used in science-technology actually have a useful predictive ability. There is a very good reason why this is the case. In essence science is about junking non-performing predictive abstractions, whereas religion is about ignoring facts that prove the inability of the sacred hypothesis to predict the workings of the world. The Elite Experts in economics and the social (cough) sciences are custodians of 'sacred' predictive hypotheses that have the demonstrated predictive ability akin to other earlier predictive methods, such as reading sheep entrails or tea leaves. Hence The Elite Experts are in reality and are also seen to be just another pompous, ridiculous priesthood - The Catholic priesthood being the other standout comedy example.

Minouche Shafik says "restoring trust in expertise" is vital if we don't want our world to be "shaped by ignorance and narrow-mindedness." It requires the state to provide for education, innovation and opportunity, so that knowledge and expertise are common goods, beneficial for all. At a time of great uncertainty it is crucial to inform the public, especially when problems need to be resolved. Debates allow experts and people without specialist knowledge to interact. Only an "informed debate" would help a country foresee its future and make plans accordingly. According to the author, we shouldn't ask ourselves "how to manage without experts, but how to ensure that expertise is trustworthy." She points out the tightrope "between technocracy and democracy," advising experts not to be politicians or vice versa. Technocrats are invited to lead when a country is in crisis, and politicians have lost public trust and confidence. However, critics - especially populists - often see technocrats as unelected experts and undemocratic bureaucrats, implementing tough, unpopular policies to the detriment of ordinary people. Even though they are viewed as a short-term solution, their reputation and experience can calm the markets and placate investors. They also bring an advantage that they tend to put national interests above partisan interests. In the UK an anti-intellectual streak in British politics in general and anger at financial experts in particular, who failed to predict the 2008 crisis were the main reason for "Leave" voters to ignore expert opinion, which warned of major economic costs of leaving the EU. Leaders of the "Leave" campaign blamed political and financial elites for the Euro crisis, the war in Iraq, growing inequality and stagnating middle-class income etc, saying they made some very serious mistakes of devastating consequences, while getting away with impunity. Ordinary people reckon the elites do not have their interests at heart. In order to regain "public confidence" and "rebuild credibility" experts need to be more humble and realistic. The author advises, "rather than pretending to be certain and risk frequently getting it wrong, commentators should be candid about uncertainty." More importantly something has to be done to bridge the gap between expertise and popular conviction, in order to create a sense of reational democracy. The author says, "consumers need better tools to assess the quality of the information and opinions they receive." In a world of free flow of information it is a daunting task. Internet is a double-edged sword that cuts both ways. It has transformed our lives, mostly for the better, but it also destroys privacy and undermines security. No wonder China and Russia are eager to restrict internet freedom, citing they have the right to choose how to develop and regulate their cyberspace. The author writes: "Schools and universities will have to do more to educate students to be better consumers of information." The problem is that education itself neither increases trust in expertise nor diminishes people's tendency to believe in theories that experts deem nonsensical. Nowadays people have become self-assertive and resent being patronised. In our age of information and communication technology, educated citizens with critical minds and even ordinary people can go online to inform themselves. Those confident of their intellect believe they can do without expertise, or disregard truth. The more they are convinced of their views, the less they trust experts, who they say are out of touch with reality. Others who are gullible, can't tell fact from fiction. In a democracy it is a scenario we have to live with. But we can't tolerate fake news and vicious propaganda, which seek to divide a nation.

A big swing and miss. Because you are new we will let you off the hook. They distrust experts because of experts' agency. They are trained, paid and promoted by a system that serves the elites. But don't say that out loud, or you could find yourself uninvited from Bilderberg.

The usual response to this article is that one must distinguish between *mistrust in the claim of pundits to have genuine expertise* and *mistrust of whether genuine experts are acting out a sales-job role or a public interest role* After all, who better to sell a line of policy recommendation than a genuine expert? Experts need to eat too after all.

Petey, they eat enough, and left nothing for anyone else..

This is a false choice - to trust and not to trust the experts. Expertise is about judgment; it is garbage in, garbage out, if someone keeps away from you the relevant datapoints, you cannot be relevant in turn; many bluff their way through and the public is too shallow to reject them.

It doesnt matter what opinion you have there will always be an 'expert' somewhere that agrees with it, you just have to hang on and one will show up. That is exactly what somebody wanting to implement some wacky policy does - wait till the right 'expert' shows up to support you

Steve, or wait until a hand over periods occurs...and get away with it..

Because most of the experts in reallity aren't experts, just talking heads

Alex, neither can one deny a commentator' s worth :)

Sorry, you must be talking about the folks who comment here. You cannot deny all professionals' worth :)

"above 2% on 50 occasions and below 2% on 50 occasions" - that's the median, which is a well known concept. Far more important and informative are: (i) the variance / range / lack of certainty; (ii) the prior assumptions. Best regards

This article is full of nuances all of which do not correlate. Why should the information spread by the media or the media tools described in this article be used for any business decisions? Experts should stick to their areas of expertise instead of sticking their noses in other peoples' affairs. A GP is not a heart surgeon (both are doctors), a teacher of economics is no teacher of geography (both are teachers), etc. There are no perceived failings out there at all. There are only failings and these failings are due to the intransigence and the ignorance of the policy makers and not the public at large. Schools and universities require more funding and less interference by lobbyists and the political establishment. People are not stupid and the expertise exists. Even a 4 years old today can differentiate between right and wrong. The problems are known and the writer of this article knows exactly where they are, by whom they are created and how to solve them, unfortunately the author decided to abstain from bringing them out in the open.

Curtis, on the 4 years old comment, a good example is what a 4 year old boy said to a person who had his pants down at a Mc Donald few days ago, it is all over the web. One must never underestimate the human brain, not even of a 4 years old.

Is it that "Even a 4 years old today can differentiate between right and wrong," or that only a four year old believes this to be the case? A good part of the human dilemma is perhaps that so many of us are so absolutely certain that we have special access to "the truth" -- particularly where normative questions of "right and wrong" are concerned.

Hi Minouche, this is thoughtful and timely and right. I think we need to place greater responsibility on the media who package (spurious) experts who learn to productize, trivialize, and then polarize to beef up their brand. I hope you have more time now to write more things like this. Hope all is well, ~ Mike

An interesting read, but I see nothing about how to restore thr credibility the "Experts" have deservedly lost. Nothing about "Experts" turning a blind eye to "Misunderstandings" of their work. The Expert sold their credibility to the rich and powerful to help make them richer and lost it. The problem is NO ONE believes them and won't for at least 30 years or more. Every current "Expert" is tainted they either sold their expertise to be used to fix the system for rich and connected or turned a willfully blind eye while their colleagues did. And they NEVER suffer the price for their failures that's for the poor to do. NAFTA will create will create hundreds of thousands of jobs or bailing out Wallstreet and paying their bonus' is absolutely but helping the working class would be a moral hazard, ring any bells? No we don't and won't believe the experts. Why should we all they are is paid mouthpieces for the rich!!!!

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